Janko Stojanow



An online book 








The latest and the newest development of the immanent higher principle of the Absolute can only be obtained as a result of the own dialectical development of Hegel's philosophical system. Hegel - definitely one of the greatest teachers of mankind, - taught us that if we want to refute a philosophy, we cannot do it from "outside" by arbitrary arguments but through unfolding and developing its own immanent and internal contradictions, which it is not yet aware about. This exactly is the way - the infinitely powerful method of highly scientific Hegelian speculative philosophy, - the Philosophy of the Absolute Rational Will follows to sublate Hegel's objective idealism and due to the method of the latter successfully sublates it. Hegel's philosophy deserves to be sublated, i.e. to be preserved its absolutely true content, which unquestionably belongs to the Absolute Truth, but is still not the final and absolute content of the latter, and therefore with absolute necessity has to be developed to a higher level of its self-development. Beyond question, it is the Absolute that in its immanent speculative dialectics manifests its infinite Volition to develop itself further and actually develops itself. There is no proposition of Hegel which does not deserve to belong to the Philosophy of the Absolute Rational Will for only a philosophy  that is capable of sublating a previous philosophy is actually a genuine development of the Science of Philosophy. The latest actual philosophy which sublates Hegel's philosophy is bound to preserve and preserves the whole content of that great philosophy and develops it. 

Let us answer the question why and how Hegel's philosophy has to be sublated. It is a substantial question; it deserves to be dealt with in depth. First of all, it is certainly not we, individual philosophers, who could impose on the Absolute arbitrarily the caprices of our will and, in so doing, "sublate" a previous philosophy. It is the Absolute itself that has in itself the "WHYs" and the "HOWs" of its eternal and perpetual self-sublation, i.e. it has the urge, the Volition to continually self-sublate and develop each consequent philosophy; this continuous process is a part of the unstoppable March of the Absolute towards its own Truth and Right (Law).

Hegel knew it perfectly: sublation is the inevitable fate of each true philosophy, his own not excluded. He wrote: "It certainly happens that a new philosophy makes its appearance, which maintains the others to be valueless; and indeed each one in turn comes forth at first with the pretext that by its means all previous philosophies not only are refuted, but what in them is wanting is supplied, and now at length the right one is discovered. But following upon what has gone before, it would rather seem that other words of Scripture are just as applicable to such a philosophy - the words which the Apostle Peter spoke to Ananias, "Behold the feet of them that shall carry thee out are at the door." Behold the philosophy by which thine own will be refuted and displaced shall not tarry long as it has not tarried before." (Hegel, Lectures on the History of Philosophy, translated by E. S. Haldane, in three volumes, Volume 1, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London, 1995, page 17).

In itself Hegel's philosophy is sublated. Sublation is just the result of the overmastering Will of the Absolute to develop itself, to possess, cognise and rules itself. No wonder that as a result of the overmastering desire of the Absolute to raise its infinitely rich content to a higher level, it has to sublate the previous stages of its self-development, i.e. to come to genuine sublation of Hegel's philosophy for itself. Thus, the Absolute has to sublate Hegel's philosophy - the highest philosophy it has attained to so far; a philosophy, in which the Absolute achieved its pure scientific form and scientific meticulousness. And there is no doubt that nowadays only through sublation of its highest stage can the Absolute enter into a deeper possession of its own material-rational Will.

The latest actual philosophy that sublates Hegel's philosophy is bound to preserve the whole content of that great philosophy and develop it. Such a work should be written in the most speculative scientific Hegelian language because both Hegel's philosophy and his way of expression clearly deserve to be saved from obscurity and to be strengthened their position in the world. Hegel's philosophy deserves to be sublated, i.e. to be preserved its absolutely true content, which unquestionably belongs to the Absolute Truth, but is still not the final and absolute content of the latter and, therefore, with absolute necessity has to be developed to a higher level of its self-development. Beyond question, it is the Absolute that in its immanent speculative dialectics manifests its infinite Volition to develop itself further and actually develops itself.

This is exactly the point. Hegel does not take into consideration the material rational Volition. He is right to say that without thinking there could not be any Will, but it is also true that without material Volition does not exist any thinking consciousness. Aristotle is right when he says that the entelechy has the end in itself, and is the realization of this end, but what he still does not attain to is the standpoint that entelechy manifests the ends of the absolute Volition, i.e. of the absolute rational material-rational will. Volition and Concept  - this is the strongest contradiction of the Absolute, which the latter in its infinite elasticity unites and combines and has them as moments of its Absolute Material-Rational Will.

Hegel's philosophy is based on the principle of each cognitive philosophy "Cognise yourself."  He is interested only in the pure activity of the Absolute, in its ACTUS PURUS, in the ideal side of the Absolute and, consequently, his concept (Notion) is not based on the Absolute Material Entelechy. That is exactly the defect (the insufficiency) of Hegel's philosophical system and that is what has to be sublated and deserves to be sublated ; it contains in itself the "Why" and the "How" of its own self-sublation and dialectical development. The newest principle "Will yourself" is the cornerstone of the immanent self-sublation of Hegel's philosophy. The presumption that true philosophy can be only idealistic is wrong. It wasn't an accident that the first philosophers were materialists. In its highest apex a true speculative idealistic philosophy becomes a completed totality and comes into its own Other - i.e. it becomes materialistic as well, - and this is exactly the case with a true materialistic philosophy, which inevitably also comes into its own Other and becomes idealistic as well. I

Today we can no longer occupy Hegel's standpoint. The Absolute Rational Will, which possesses the infinite power of the absolute, wills to overcome and has overcome the standpoint of Hegel's philosophy in order to come to deeper possession of itself. As a spirit I am only inasmuch as I know myself, as a Will only inasmuch as I possess myself. “I will that” is the truly higher standpoint. Knowledge does not have another purpose but to serve the “I” who wants to have himself for himself, in other words, to serve the Will, which wills to come into the possession of its highest good - itself alone. I have - namely I have, - occupies a higher standpoint than I know and contains in itself the latter as sublated. I have what belongs to me; I possess myself - this principle is the absolutely necessary self-development of Hegel's I know myself. It is a speculative refutation of the latter. Thus the Absolute Rational Will reaches a higher stage of its development as a totality of determinations of its self-possession. 

Hegel did not examined Will in a systematic way, so as to develop its principle. He failed to reveal the inner dialectics of the principle of each intellectualistic philosophy - "Cognise yourself," -  which in and through itself overcomes itself to its true form in which it is only a moment of a higher principle - the principle of Absolute Rational Will "Will yourself." This is the internal contradiction which Hegel is not aware about. The newest principle contains in itself as sublated all the previous determinations of Hegel's philosophy, which in turn is the developed result of the whole history of intellectualistic Philosophy. Thus, the Philosophy of Absolute Rational Will affirmatively inherits and contains in itself the great legacy of Hegel's philosophy, enters in total possession of it and uses the wealth of its content as its own.

The objective idealism - by and large the best achievement of philosophy so far, - makes the principle of thinking “Cognise yourself” a principle of the world. This is absolutely true; we accept it thoroughly. Nonetheless, as we have already pointed out, it is a moment of the truly higher principle “Will yourself”. Thus the great, true and speculative philosophy of Hegel is entirely retained. The principle of his philosophy is sublated; it is an immanent and perfectly true moment of the absolute. What is refuted is Hegel's claim only that his philosophy and his principle are the highest determinations of the absolute. But precisely in the sublime moment of sublation - or refutation, - of a philosophy the absolute begins vigorously and freely to develop its new, higher principle and to create new, unknown until then categories. What was an unrealisable wish of Will and insoluble mystery of Spirit, and therefore, was only in itself, now comes out of the darkness of the unknown and becomes for itself; now it becomes well-known as much as it used to be unknown. In no way do we have to invent these categories arbitrarily. They are inherent moments of the absolute. Sublating its previous principle, the latter frees them; it needs them as it wants to come into absolute possession of itself and to rule itself for itself.

“Will yourself” is the truly universal principle; “Cognise yourself” is only a moment subordinate to this truly higher principle. For that reason now we have to regard Hegel's objective determinations of thought such as they are on their own account, namely as material Volitions and to cognise the absolute on the basis of its higher principle “Will yourself”. Thus Hegelian Concept - Reason, Spirit, - is not the highest principle of the absolute but the entelechial Rational Will is. If the reason, the spirit is the form of forms, the good is the absolute unity of form and matter. Volition is higher than the concept (the Notion) and contains in itself Hegel's absolute concept as sublated; the latter is the cognised Volition. 

The Absolute contains in itself the actual infinite contradiction between idealism and materialism and it is up to the infinite elasticity of its Absolute Rational Will to sublate its own opposites. It is the Absolute Rational Will of the Absolute that wants to unite materialism and idealism, to unite Hegel and Marks, to unite the material world and the Absolute Spirit, because in themselves they are one and the same. Now this "one-and-the-sameness" has to be expressed explicitly. The job had to be done and it has been done.

For there is only one great philosophy which deserves to be sublated as much as Hegel's - Marx's philosophy. Sublating materialism, we - there is no doubt about it, - have to deal with Marx's philosophy since it is the highest apex of materialism and we cannot doubt Marx's intellectual, scientific and ethical honesty as well as his scrupulousness. But individuals (Marx, etc) are not important when we talk about philosophies each of which sublates the previous one for philosophers' greatest desire is to assist the Absolute in its eternal Will to overcome and, in so doing, to achieve its complete self-possession, self-knowledge and self-rule. It is the Absolute - and precisely speaking, - its Absolute Rational Will that in its self-development has the urge to go beyond Hegel's standpoint (at which the Absolute grasps itself as Absolute Spirit only). True, Hegel does not forget the material completely, but in his philosophy it is present only implicitly. It is high time the matter had its rights vindicated. The Absolute wills to possess itself in its totality and true right. The only way to make matter concrete and living is to understand the Will of the Absolute Material Entelechy and to express the principle of the latter: "Will yourself.

By the very process of sublating Marx's philosophy we will inevitably attain to the same standpoint to which sublating Hegel's philosophy brings us, i.e. to the standpoint of the Absolute Rational Will. Why will we attain to the same result? For it is not we that sublate these two great philosophies. It is the Absolute that is self-sublating itself ; the Absolute has to be comprehended as the speculative movement in which and through which it is in the process of constant self-sublating. Only the empty dialectics of the Understanding cannot unify the opposites - materialism and idealism, - and cannot reach to their unity. But speculative dialectics shows us and reaches to the unity of the opposites, which - due to the fact that each of them is a totality of its own, - in the process of its completion passes over into its Other. To develop Marx's and Hegel's philosophies means that we have to show them through the development of their own speculative dialectics, due to which each of them passes over into each own Other, because there is the unity of their principles, which is higher than them. 

Uniting philosophies is not something new. It has been happening for millennia. Let me quote Hegel, who - in the very process of distinguishing three important periods in ancient Greek philosophy,  - says: "This first period shows the beginning of philosophic thought, and goes on to its development and perfection as a totality of knowledge in itself; this takes place in Aristotle as representing the unity of what has come. In Plato there is just such a union of what came earlier, but it is not worked out, for he only represents the Idea generally. The Neo-Platonists have been eclectics, and Plato was said to have brought about the unity; they were not however, eclectics, but they had a conscious insight into the necessity for uniting these philosophies." (Hegel, Lectures on the History of Philosophy, translated by E. S. Haldane, in three volumes, Volume 1, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London, 1995, page 163)

For Hegel, when a philosophy is refuted what is refuted is not the principle of that philosophy, but only the claim of its principle to be ultimate and absolute and, as such, to have absolute validity. The refutation, therefore, consists in the further development of the principle, and in thus getting rid of its defectiveness. The old principle is taken up into the new one so that the latest philosophy preserves all the previous principles and contains them into itself and as something that deserves to be eternally alive since they are moments of the Absolute truth. Modern philosophy cannot make a genuine headway until it sublates Hegel's philosophy. Hegel's principle is not the highest one; it is not the ultimate, the absolute determination. It is only a moment subordinate to the higher principle "Will yourself," which Hegel failed to attain. In my work I set myself the task of showing that by virtue of the principle "Will yourself" we can elaborate the concept of Will, and furthermore, we can develop and make the science of Rational Will through and through, wholly and completely concrete; development which the latter deserves to the highest degree. 










Janko Stojanow



(an online book published on 29.10.2001 Copyright © 2001 Janko Stojanow)





Preface Philosophy of the Absolute Rational Will


I. Sublation of Hegel's philosophy

II. On the Absolute Material Entelechy

III. On Aristotle's concept of Will 

IV. On the Absolute Rational Will 

V. Political Will - the totally practical universal Rational Will




Preface to the further development of the Philosophy of Absolute Rational Will

            1. On the Absolute Rational Will                                        (Published on 5.05.2002)

            2. On the Soul                                                                       (Published on 16.06.2002)

            3. On Property                                                                         (Published on 5.02.2003)  

            4. Sublation of Hegel's philosophy                                         (Published on 28.08.2002)

            5. WILL YOURSELF                                                             (Published on 10.09.2002)

             6. A Copernican Revolution in Philosophy                            (Published on 19.10.2002)

             7. The totally practical universal Philosophy                        (Published on 26.12.2002)


A quotation





Copyright © 2001 Janko Stojanow. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the author.





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