Janko Stojanow

ON THE ABSOLUTE RATIONAL WILL

(SUBLATION OF ’S PHILOSOPHY) G.W.F. Hegel

 Volume 3

 

Praise of Body

 

 

 

 

 Introduction

 

Given the fact that the Will is the source of all actions and all bodily actions in particular - so that all corporeal volitions and desires are ends of the body, - I have to say explicitly at the very beginning that the Praise of Body is Praise of Will as well. The Will has the determination, the energy, the drive to achieve its ends. Our own body - our own corporeal instrument, which we are utterly proud of, - is a manifestation of the Absolute Material Volition. Willing to will itself - to rule itself, - Material Volition comes into total possession of itself as an individual whose nervous system regulates its bodily functions, bodily sensations as well as mind, feelings and spirit; the highest realisation of the Will's principle of individuation. Whatever Man does is an end of his Will - it is the source of all his activities for there is nothing that is nobler and more powerful than Will. “Will yourself” is the principle of in-and-for-itself existing material Volition getting in possession of what has already come in possession of itself. Its highest end is the bodily welfare of the individual, its survival as well as the freedom of his rational Will.

Descartes' famous statement "Cogito, ergo sum" has been admired for more than 300 years. He starts with thinking; Hegel, who developed philosophy in the spirit of Aristotelian thinking itself Thought, had every reason to be amongst his admirers. Being profoundly influenced by more that 1800 years of Christian religion and willing to develop the philosophy of Spirit, Hegel examined the main questions and the highest determinations of the latter. There is little wonder why he claims: "with Descartes the new epoch in Philosophy begins, whereby it was permitted to culture to grasp in the form of universality the principle of its higher spirit in thought." (Hegel, Lectures on the History of Philosophy, volume 3, Medieval and modern philosophy, translated by E. S. Haldane and Frances H. Simson, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London, 1995, page 223-224) Yet, like all other rational philosophers, Descartes and Hegel are mainly preoccupied with Thinking, they think of Thinking apart from the body and the whole material world beyond it. Acknowledging the material side of the Absolute but not willing to examine it in its materiality - as Hegel does, - is not enough if we want to attain to what is desired in a universally practical philosophy. Hegel's only will is to examine the ideal side. Developing Aristotle's logical forms, Hegel talks about potency (in-itself) and actuality (for-itself), he examines how they exist for the cognition, not per se, i. e. how the Absolute possesses itself. Hegel's philosophy is only a cognitive philosophy. He examines the Absolute from the point of view of the cognising spirit only. He does not treat the absolute per se as it has itself in-and-for-itself. For this reason, neither he nor other  traditional intellectualistic philosophers as such are capable of grasping the fact that the principle of Spirit is a subordinate moment of the higher principle of Rational Will, the fact that Spirit is nothing else but the pure intellectual form of Rational Will. This intellectual form is only a moment of the material totality of the principle of the Absolute Rational Will and its freedom.

So profound are the abstractions of all intellectualistic philosophers that ignoring the Absolute Material Volition they prefer to talk about Thinking only; their abstractions have their roots only in spirituality itself. No wonder that, in so doing, they find exactly what they want to. The crux of the matter, however, is that philosophy cannot be great and have enormous practical applications if - at the very beginning of the scientific philosophical examination, it  separates Thinking and Matter instead of cognising them in their absolute unity in thinking and willing material brain, in thinking and willing material body. Thinking is grounded in our bodily experiences in nature and society.

Reading Descartes' Principles of Philosophy, it is not difficulty to see how decisively his philosophy makes a total break with Medieval Philosophy. Instead of Anselm's proof of God's existence, now Man is interested in proving the truth of its own being. "Cogito, ergo sum." To such a poor category as one's own being could Descartes only develop the Philosophy of his time; yet, this category constitutes a necessary development of the phenomenology of Spirit. Descartes' "I think, therefore I am" is a pure product of phenomenological thinking. However, phenomenological thinking is just the beginning of science. The phenomenology of Spirit is not able to doubt in itself and ask the perfectly essential question: "But why do I think?" The Philosophy of today has been able to attain to a higher apex and say: I will to think my Will! I think for I have to know my will. Will and Willing are definitely higher categories than the categories of mere existence as well as the ones of the phenomenology of Spirit. Before I think, I will, I strive for, I have appetites, instincts, conations, volitions: I will my corporeal desires and fully enjoy the perfection of their materiality. Will is the self-knowing and self-wanting Volition. The living being - the total material Will to act, - possesses itself and "knows" its Will utterly well.

I exist because the Absolute Rational Will wills so; it is the Absolute that wills me to live. The Absolute is willing and thinking itself Rational Will. My hunger, thirst, sexual appetite, pain, desires are the volitional manifestations of its power. These physical (corporeal) volitional manifestations of existence are infinitely stronger than the nirvana of "Cogito, ergo sum" - the extinction of all desires and passions. Descartes does not bear in mind that the baby - as well as mankind in its childhood, in the beginning of all beginnings, - does not speak, does not think but wills. He failed - all rational philosophers have failed, - to take into consideration the fact that before the baby thinks, it wills for its body has the will to welfare and freedom. Realistically speaking, being one of the greatest moments of the human body, thinking has no other aim but to serve the Will. The baby's Will, which is rational in itself, has the conation to develop its brain, to start thinking and become rational for itself. 

 

 

Praise of Body: A Copernican Revolution in Philosophy is a must

  The most eminent proof of the fact that what is obvious is seldom true is the belief of common sense that "the Sun goes round the Earth." It is well-known that by the time Copernicus published his book, the Christian Church had elevated the ideas of Aristotle to the level of religious dogma. The theory of the universe that the Church had adopted from ancient times was based mainly on the physics of Aristotle and the astronomy of Ptolemy. It had also put its formidable authoruty behind the combined system of the world of Aristotle and Ptolemy. According to the astronomy of Ptolemy, like that of Aristotle, the earth is at the centre of the universe and does not move. The Sun, the planets, the Moon  as well as the sphere of the fixed stars in their constellations all revolved around the earth. To a great extent, the Ptolemaic system of the Universe conforms with the appearances - with what we observe when we look up at the sky. Similarly, although it looks like the stars move once around the Earth every day, Copernicus discovered that it was just the Earth that was spinning, not the stars.

With the publication of "On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres," Copernic initiated the greatest revolution in thinking that Western civilization has seen; a revolution which swept away completely the ideas of Aristotle and replace them with the modern view of astronomy and natural science. In his magnificent contribution to modern science, Copernic stated that Sun was the centre of the solar system and the Earth was not. Thus, the revolution of knowledge - a revolution in man's concept of the universe and his his relation to God, - began; it is rightly called "The Copernican Revolution". Copernicus' radical heliocentric cosmology put the Sun at the centre of the universe and that the planets - including the Earth, - revolved around the Sun. The realization that we, our planet, an our solar system and even our galaxy are quite common in the heavens and reproduced by myriads of planetary systems, was definitely a critical turning point in the evolution of scientific thought as well as a complete shift in Western man's philosophical conception of the universe.

The modern scientific era, which began with the Copernican hypothesis, had a tremendous impact on philosophy, its very doundations were profoundly shaken. Philosophy had to face the challenges emerging from the ever advancing flux of knowledge. Testing ideas by observation and developing them accordingly was often sufficient to refute many old philosophical dogmas; observation and scientific experiments replaced the method of pure philosophical reasoning. The unity of philosophy-related disciplines disintegrated. The mother of sciences, who had brought up all the disciplines that previously belonged to it, was no more the most superior form of knowledge. Philosophy was not to be the privilege of those exercising it as a profession. Science and scientific communities have now deservedly obtained and established as much social power as philosophy used to enjoy in its times of greatness. The present state of academic philosophy is utterly deplorable; nobody cares about its dogmas. The cuts in funding, its lack of prestige and public influence are just a few of the various signs of the times which indicate the crisis of modern philosophical culture and its incredible decadence. 

What made it possible for Copernic to revolutionise man's consciousness was the fact that he was able to overcome the Earth's point of view. There is no doubt that every new Copernican Revolution is possible only through careful examination and refutation of the myths of the past. The great mistake of traditional rational philosophy was that everything was seen and described from the point of view of thinking and even Will was grasped as an ability or power of Intellect. Wrong, absolutely wrong! Will and its acts of Willing must be dealt with a diametrically different categories; it definitely does not help at all if we use the language of cognising, contemplating, theorising, etc. It has not helped for millennia.

We have to talk about human Will and its actions in terms of self-possession and self-ruling. I - everyone is I, - possess my Will; I am in total possession of my Will. I am ruled by it and rule through it at the same time. This is the ultimate end, the supreme goal of Rational Will - to take itself in total possession. In its natural form the Will is the source of all actions in the Universe and being in possession of all its creations it manifests itself as necessity in the inanimate world of physics and chemistry. However, Will has the urge to come to its purely volitional self-possession in the plant and animal worlds; desires, feelings, conations are the highest kind of volitional self-possession in the animal world. True, traditional philosophies used to introduce the principle of individuation but they failed to define it as volitional self-possession. The latter is the basis of animals' freedom. In Man, Will mediates itself with itself; it is to come to its total self-possession and freedom through cognition, Reason, Spirit, thanks to which it becomes passive intellectual knowledge. But only as brought into union with the Volitional can the latter become active practical volitional knowledge. Thus, Will returns to itself, it becomes the totally in-and-for-itself Rational Will, the absolute source of rational action, i.e. the the totally practical knowing and possessing itself Rational Will of the person.

Hegel got it wrong. It is not Will that is the product of Mind, Intelligence, Reason as he claimed, but it is the latter  that are the highest development of Willing matter, which is intrinsically rational. It is the Mind of Rational Will; the thinking itself Rational Will, which wills nothing else but itself alone. The highest end of the Absolute is not its Absolute Truth only, but the law of its Absolute Rational Will; the latter has Hegel's Absolute Truth as an immanent moment.  

We do not will to think in categories of superiority of Mind anymore - as intellectualistic philosophy still does; the latter treats Will as just another power of Mind. According to it, Reason is the master of Will; Will has no other choice but to follow the orders of Reason and obey its Power. Such theorising is clearly the result of the work of the Understanding. For only the self-important Understanding - as a par excellence manifestation of phenomenological Spirit, - can divide Rational Will into blind Will and ruling Reason ordering the Will what to do; and they have been divided by Rational (intellectualistic) philosophers for millennia. As a matter of fact, however, the task of the Rational Will of our time is to overcome this division. Thinking - and its product, Practical Reason, - is not an end per se (in itself), it is a means for achieving the end; Rational Will needs to think itself so as to organise itself better. The task of practical Reason is to help organising the desires of Will. Reason and Will are moments of one and the same Rational Will. The orders of Reason are actually orders of Rational Will. The work of intellect, Mind, Spirit is not and cannot be superb as long as it thinks itself to be the highest form from-and-through which everything else is to be understood and explained.

Despite of the fact that - as I said above, - at Hegel's time philosophy had already lost its exceptional and highly privileged position as well as glory, he still believed that philosophy is the highest development of Spirit. Today philosophy's social status is even lower. It is not at the forefront of development of humanity; nobody follows it. Due to their practical character and the fact that they can be applied, the Natural Sciences have overcome Philosophy and dethroned it. Only when Philosophy ceases to deal with its narrow-minded approach, can it hope to become an important field of human activity again. For this reason, it has to give up its very own name of "love of wisdom" and become the universal practical philosophy of Absolute Rational Will; it has to become Politovolia if it really wants to exert any influence whatsoever on human societies. Only Voluntarism - a philosophy of Political Will, - can play an actual role. In times of decadence of philosophy, nothing is more important than making philosophy a totally practical science.

Voluntarism, which has been developed and at the same time neglected for millennia, is still waiting to be discovered again and understood and in its latest form  as modern Rational Voluntarism to become the philosophy of XXI Century. The future belongs to the Philosophy of Will. To breathe life in this philosophy and make it the Philosophy of today is one of the most important tasks of our time. Independently of what philosophers have always thought about, Will has always been at the core of human abilities, activities, deeds, et cetera. We strive for the victory of the willing I over the thinking I.

The Philosophy of Absolute Rational Will starts with the absolute volitional matter, which is immanently rational. The Absolute is infinitely more complex than all the simplifications of traditional philosophies, in which it is either pure Spirit or pure matter. The soil of philosophy, the basic question of traditional Philosophy - cognition of truth, - is too narrow as well as shallow. Beyond it is the World of complete reality, of Politovolia and its complete political reality. The fundamental mistake of traditional Rational philosophy is that it connects brain with Intellect, Reason, Spirit only. As a result, it tends to make Will subservient to Reason. In fact, the body and its highest organisation, brain, is not Intellect only but first and foremost Will. Brain is a part of the self-possessing volitional body. "I will" is a manifestation of the highest form of volitional body - of volitional knowledge.

It was Marx who started the Copernican Revolution in modern political and philosophical Voluntarism. He expressed the political Will of the opressed class and inspired it to fight. He developed its Will to change the world. We cannot but be anti-philosophers when philosophy degenerates in pure speculativity and contemplation and divorces from empiricism and from the material delivered by various scientific, scholarly or social activities as well as the economic and political development of the Will of our time. All these factors are a clear sign of the necessity of a Copernican Revolution. Only if we have the strong Will of our time, can we hope to contribute to the development of the Absolute Rational Will.

Contrary to Plato who wanted men of deed - the politicians, - to be philosophers but he himself withdraw from politics, the future of philosophy is in character building, in bringing up people's Will: their social, professional, political Will. We are never taught to think in categories of Will. Educating, just educating people is simply not enough. Developing their intellectual knowledge, developing their  political Will, creating a society of people with strong political Will is the task of the new era. Marx did it. We should.

 

Praise of Body: Division of Will

 

1. Natural Will: "Possess yourself" 

 

Containing in itself the principle of Hegelian Spirit as sublated, the principle of Will is all the more substantially higher than Cartesian "Cogito ergo sum." Despite the fact that Descartes is said to have been a cognitive voluntarist, the idea of voluntarism never appears in the body of the Meditations. Descartes' thinking I is incapable of identifying with the willing I. The imperfection, the incompleteness of his statement, - "Cogito, ergo sum," - is amazing. Even an animal "knows" that it exists. Nonetheless, its "knowledge" is different - it is volitional self-possession. Marx was right to claim in the afterword to the second edition of the Capital that “My dialectic method is not only different from the Hegelian, but is its direct opposite. .... With him it is standing on its head. It must be turned right side up again, if you would discover the rational kernel within the mystical shell.” Yet, Marx also failed to grasp the Absolute as willing material subject - undoubtedly, the ends of Man are ends of objective Rational Will.

I cannot but will. My will includes all my strong desires, affections, restless appetencies, craving, hunger, longing, lust, thirst and emotions, i.e. it includes all the faculties of the soul that are not comprehended under man's intellectual knowledge. The philosophy of Absolute Rational Will does not have to invent unintelligible theories of uniting soul and body, matter and thinking. It naturally incorporates the materialistic as well as the spiritualistic points of view and presents their total unity clearly and better than ever before. We have to talk about Will in the categories of material Volition - the goal in-and-for-itself, the end in-and-for-itself. It is beyond knowledge. It transcends knowledge. It is infinitely more than intellectualistic knowledge. It determines the HOW's and WHY's of human history. Will speaks the most perfect "language" - the language of action for it is the absolutely actual.

The total possession of my own body, of my own corporeal instrument - everyone has a body, - is a manifestation of the Absolute Material Volition, which Aristotle called entelechy for he treated psychology as a branch of physical science. When Aristotle speaks of the soul he does not mean the principle of thought but the principle of life; he defines the latter as the form, or actualisation of the body, "the first entelechy of the organised body possessing the power of life." For him the soul is not a substance distinct from the body, as Plato claimed but the power of self-movement of the body, or of movement from within it. According to him entelechy is the end and the realisation of the end. For this reason, we have to treat Aristotle's entelechy as a moment of the early historical development of Volition, of the volical. 

Yet, not surprisingly, the Volitional has been mysterious even for the most speculative of all logics - Hegel's one. Due to dealing with itself alone, Spirit could not but have tended to express its superiority over Will. All rational philosophers have failed to go beyond the notion of powers of Mind; for them both Will and Thinking are only different powers of Mind. Not being capable of thinking in the categhories of Absolute Rational Will, they failed to comprehend Aristotle's Entelechy as a category of Volition. Being the absolute in its totality, Volition is the highest organising principle  which manifests itself as a truly powerful material soulfull body. The Philosophy of Absolute Rational Will is better equiped than any other philosophy to criticise Hegel's philosophy for it sublates that philosophy. Hegel expressed Volition in its imperfect spiritual form as Concept only. His infinite Spirit is the pure immaterial form of the infinite immanently material Will and, for this reason, it is only thinkable as a moment of the latter. As a matter of fact, however, only the Absolute Rational Will is capable of giving bodily form to its creations for it is totally material and at the same time entirely rational for it is the best material organisation of the Absolute - the directed towards itself supreme material Good.

Being the absolute material actualisation of the principle "Will yourself," we will ourselves. We obey the highest command of Rational Will, which is the unconditional source of good and bad, of pain, strong discomfort and suffering as well as joy, strong enthusiasm and desire. The willing I enjoys itself. It gets pleasure from itself alone; its aim is to overcome all obstacles and achieve its own highest pleasures in all their varieties. Its all purposes and imperative volitions are acts of Will. Plato knew that Eros is a divine passion given to us for our supreme delight; he did not hesitate to state it explicitly. On the other hand, Pascal had every right to say: "The heart has its reasons, of which reason knows nothing." Our organisms are volitional for they are the product of the absolute material Volition. They have developed over millions of years through a complex process of evolution and selection. Our emotions are initiated by things that are usually not at all "logical." We communicate on a "volitional level" with the world that surrounds us. Our life consists of total interaction between the outside world and us. The "secret language" of corporeal desires is the one that men use to communicate with women on a "sexual level." The joy of Man's desiring is magnificent in any way; and it is these desires that control our motivation and behaviour when it comes to sex. As a quick example, let me ask you what makes you feel that instant attraction for a woman? For the majority of men it is a body part, a voice tone, a touch or a certain look. A man's body language says everything about him to a woman. Due to Will we have the desire or inclination to seek and desire things. The Will manifests itself as a strong wanting of what promises enjoyment or pleasure; yet, hidden behind the passionate affection and desire felt by lovers for each other is the Will of the Absolute to preserve the genus. It is under total volitional control. This volitional sexual energy is creative in nature; you can create another human being with it. We all come into the world through the power of the volitional sexual act.                        

Not only do we have intellectual knowledge about the world we live in, but we also have "volitional knowledge" of the most wonderful description: we possess the supreme unmistakable knowledge of our body before we even start developing any intellectual knowledge. We have the will to eat, to drink, to live, to walk, et cetera, - the way we feel hunger, the way we feel thirst, the way we feel sexual hunger and the way we live, are all manifestations of our internal volitional self-possession, which is totally rational in itself. If we want to use the language of intellectualistic philosophy, we should call volitional self-possession volitional knowledge. That is why the act of intercourse was described in the Bible as "being known" (as in "David took her into his tent and knew her.") Due to its total volitional self-possession, my body "knows" about gravity, physics, biology and all the Natural Sciences altogether even before my intellectual I knows anything whatsoever about them. We have this knowledge inherently; it is subconscious. One thing is absolutely sure: without it no life can be possible at all. This volitional self-possession -or "knowledge", - is our sixth sense. It is due to it that we "know" infinitely more than we know thanks to our five senses. Actually, having Will is the greatest of all our divine gifts. It is intuitive, instinctive. Schelling would have done significantly more if instead of his intuition, he had introduced this instinctive volitional "knowledge." Our volitional knowledge is perfect in a way which intellectual knowledge could just dream about; it is the total volitional self-possession of the willing to think itself Absolute Rational Will. The latter wills to think itself, but only to cognise itself and, in so doing, to totally carry out itself into practice totally.

 Amazingly enough, the ancient division of the entity into a body and a soul still prevails; these categories are still treated in the way they were treated in ancient Greece. The Soul is treated as something independent. Nonetheless, the immaterial Idea of different idealistic philosophies is an empty pure spiritual form, which cannot exist without the material volitional brain. It is the latter that as the form of forms is not only fully capable of acquiring the real objects without matter, but is also absolutely necessary for the needs of cognition and the spiritual abilities of the Soulful Body. In the complete reality of the Absolute, however, there does not exist anything whatsoever without matter. Rather than separate "flesh" from "soul," the Philosophy of Absolute Rational Will teaches the unification of body, the Rational in-itself Will, and mind, intellect, spirit, the Rational for-itself Spiritual Will. Brain is the meeting point of matter and Spirit; for neither the Body nor the Soul can exist on their own. They are a manifestation of the absolute unity of Matter and Volition, each of which is unthinkable without its own other; they are a manifestation of the Absolute Volitional-Material Entity.  

It is due to Will that we seek and desire things; yet, the Will is infinitely more than just the mental faculty by which one deliberately chooses or decides. The Will is Volition - the principle of self-motion of the Absolute Material Entelechy that pervades everything in the World and aims at the highest Good. For this reason it has the conation, the urge, to cognise itself in its universal form. Plants, animals and people are endowed with the power of material Volition, which is rational in itself; it is its manifestations that are called souls in all world religions and philosophies. However, not only does the human soulful body - the human material Volition, - possess the vegetative and sensual faculties, which characterise plant-life and animal life respectively, but it also adds the volitional power of brain to think rationally - the power of acquiring universal intellectual knowledge. Having the Will to think, the Absolute creates brain - the highest organisation of its material entelechy. Thus, the Will, which initially is rational in itself only, can now exercise the mental faculties of brain so as to form ideas, arrive at conclusions, make decisions, draw inferences and, in so doing, become the rational for itself Will. Their unity is the Absolute Rational in-and-for-itself Will, whose end is the highest Good; the latter is willed in-and-for-itself. The Will exists only as actual permanent desire of the Good; it is directed to itself alone for it and only it is its own highest Good. As we have shown above, in its highest form, in Man, it manifests itself as two different kinds of knowledge - as pure volitional "knowledge" of material self-possession, Natural WIll, and intellectual (non-material) knowledge, Spiritual Will.

 

 

2. Spiritual Will: "Cognise yourself"

 

We can clearly divide philosophy into Realistic and Speculative (intellectualistic) philosophy. The first includes the great achievements of materialism. By any criteria materialism, to which all Natural Sciences belong, has achieved infinitely more than idealistic speculative philosophy; undoubtedly, it is predestined to achieve even more in the future. It all started with the atomists - the first materialists, - and Aristotle's encyclopedia of sciences. According to Aristotle the soul and the body are essentially related; the soul is not a separate substance, but an arrangement of stuff, or material substance, of which the body is made. Furthermore, we have to mention the French and British materialists and all Natural Sciences; it was not without a good reason that the British called physics Natural Philosophy and considered Newton to be a philosopher. Their descendents - Feuerbach, Marx, Engels as well as a significant number of modern scientists, - succeeded in making great contributions to the latest development of realistic philosophy.

As for speculative philosophy, it suffered a substantial defeat even during Hegel's lifetime. A revolution had taken place in Germany - speculative philosophy had ceased to have any practical significance. The general interest awakened by Philosophy belonged to the past; the common consciousness had already separated from Hegel predecessors: Kant, Fichte and Schelling. Fewer and fewer men were still continuing to occupy themselves with speculation. This must have been so depressive and dispiriting that in the Introduction of his Philosophy of Nature Hegel states: "... now it is not acknowledged, as it used to be, that studying philosophy has to be a necessary introduction and foundation of every further scientific education and professional work." Hegel must have been profoundly terrified by the fact that even in his epoch philosophy was no longer an organic part of the spiritual culture of his time. Yet, his philosophy was not to be an exception in spite of the fact that he tried to make philosophy a science.

True, there is nothing bad in the fact that idealistic philosophy makes the thinking itself Thought an object. Nonetheless, the problem is that rational philosophers do not examine thinking in its complete unconditional materiality - as the product of the material volitional brain. Kant was absolutely right to supply a criticism of our faculties of knowledge in his critical philosophy. He claimed that "before obtaining knowledge we must inquire into the facilities of knowledge... that we must know the faculty of knowledge before we can know." (Hegel, Lectures on the History of Philosophy, volume 3, Medieval and modern philosophy, translated by E. S. Haldane and Frances H. Simson, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London, 1995, page 428) On the other hand, Hegel had sufficient reason to mock and ridicule Kant numerous times in his works saying: "but how we are to know without knowing, how we are to apprehend the truth before the truth, it is impossible to say. It is the old story of the scholasticos who would not go into the water till he could swim. Thus since the investigation of the faculties of knowledge is itself knowing, it cannot in Kant attain to what it aims at because it is that already - it cannot come to itself because it is already with itself." ( Ibid. page 428-429) Yet, what Kant says is important and should be examined meticulously; the great point Kant makes is that he doubts the right of pure speculative philosophy to claim its superiority over the Natural Sciences. He is absolutely right to demand that on their way to truth men must know the nature and the function of their instrument. 

Brain is this instrument and it deserves to be examined more than anything whatsoever in philosophy. The crux of the matter is that Philosophy of Mind, our searching for the mind cannot make a great headway without this close examination of brain for it is the most complex organ in known universe. Due to this examination we will learn that brain is the highest organisation of the Absolute Rational Will. It is the brain that processes the latter; for this reason, everything we do comes from our brains. The brain's practical activities are a manifestation of the principle of Absolute Material Entelechy "Will yourself." The practical (the brain's practical activities) is infinitely more important than the theoretical (its theoretical activities) and has the latter in itself as inherently sublated. The philosophy of Absolute Rational Will knows that the theoretical, the Spirit is subordinated to the practical and a means for its achieving; this knowledge has always been and will always be put into practice in Politovolia - the world of real political life. 

 

A long time ago scientists began discovering what we know about brain today and many brain discoveries have been made so far. Infinitely more is to come in brain science and infinitely more  brain discoveries are to be made in the future, and - Kant is unconditionally right, - the point is that no speculative philosophy can make them. As a matter of fact, "We've learned more about the brain in the last few decades than in all the years before. Why? Because of imaging and other modern scientific techniques. No longer must scientists cut apart dead brains to examine their structure. Now we can peer into living brains to see what they look like and how they work. Now we can examine brains, LIVE!"1 Brain (thinking volitional matter - the matter that dematerialises) is the highest of all properties of the Absolute. It is also directed towards the Supreme property of the individual and it is the highest property of the Absolute Rational Will.

 

Hegel failed to examine the volitional brain; he was not interested in such an examination. In line with the method of his speculative thinking, he prefered to derive everything in the World from the Notion. However, pure Hegelian type speculation cannot be stronger and more powerful than Aristotelian thinking empiricism as well as the method of the Natural Sciences. As far as in the fourth century B.C. philosophy included the whole of science and Aristotle understood, integrated and systemized it. It wasn't by accident that the British and the French scientists before Hegel used to call physics and all empirical sciences Philosophy. Philosophy has to be practically verifiable; it has to be able to incorporate the whole wealth of the Natural Sciences if we want to elevate the rang and importance of philosophy in the culture of modern civilization.

It is for this reason that Aristotle and Hegel's philosophical methods deserve to be meticulously examined and compared. Whereas Aristotle represents excellent pragmatic thinking empiricism, which has been widely used with tremendous success by all Natural Sciences for millennia, Hegel prefers pure speculative thinking. True, Hegel is right to say that the spiritual concrete is poor from sensuality: "We have to discern the natural concrete from the concrete of thought, which is poor with sensuality." (Hegel, Lectures on the History of Philosophy, translated by E. S. Haldane, in three volumes, Volume 1, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London, 1995, page 149) Nevertheless, what the natural concrete is rich with is material Volition (entelechiality) - the Absolute, God, as it is in-and-for-itself. 

Hegel's philosophy is only a cognitive, intellectual philosophy. Everywhere in his works he writes about the being in-and-for-itself, i.e. from the point of view of the cognising spirit only. Everywhere in his works he uses the language of his Logic. Determination, self-determination, absolute negativity, the negation of negation - everywhere in Hegel's works we come across the categories of his Logic presented as the most essential categories of the absolute. Nevertheless, it is the language of Natural Sciences and the philosophy of Absolute Rational Will that is closer to the point of view of the public in large. It is much more natural to say that the Absolute self-organises itself instead of using the language of Hegel's Logic and saying that it self-determines itself.

For Hegel "the principle of philosophy is the infinite free Notion, and all its content rests on that alone."2 The task of Mind is to know itself, to make itself objective to itself, to come to itself and finally unite itself to itself. Intellectualistic philosophy used to claim for millennia that reason rules the world; according to it reason is the soul of the world. True, - as Hegel claims, - only the thinking turns the soul, with which the animal is gifted as well, into Spirit. Furthermore, he has every right to say: "everything which is human, however it may appear, is so only because the thought contained in it works and has worked."3 Expressing his admiration for the intellectual world discovered by Plato, Hegel says that this intellectual world is the truly real. Yet, being a mere idealistic or intellectualistic thinker Plato could not reach to the inference - and neither could Hegel, - that the Volitional World is the truly existing one: it is the totally real and free absolute unity of matter and Volition.

 Hegel's presentation of the World, of everything that happens in heaven and earth is one-sided. He busies himself with Thinking only. The noticeable lack of Will in his philosophy is a manifestation of his unawareness of the fact that it is the Will that acts in the world and realises itself in it. He omits to examine Will in any active sense and on its own account as the absolute, which within itself has itself for itself. Abiding by the principle of his totally cognitive philosophy, he defines Will as a special way of thinking. According to him, Thought is essentially the substance of will. In § 23 of his Philosophy of Right Hegel says: “The will is the true, or rather truth itself, because its self-determination consists in a correspondence between what it is in its existence (i.e. what it is as objective to itself) and its concept; or in other words, the pure concept of the will has the intuition of itself for its goal and its reality.”

 The philosophy of Absolute Rational Will acknowledges the form of thinking as an absolute form. It is due to thinking that the Will gets to know its own rational nature, i.e. its universality; it reveals itself to itself and knows itself. Nevertheless, - contrary to Hegel's teaching, - the Philosophy of Absolute Rational Will clearly presents the fact that it is Mind that is the product of Will. Mind is the highest development of Will; it is the result of the Absolute Rational Will to think itself. The Will, which has come into possession of itself as Natural Will, now has to attain to its spiritual form and reveals itself to itself. Thus, the Will is now able to determine itself in a universal way and becomes thinking Will. Mind, Reason, Spirit are volitional for they are the result of the acts of the thinking itself Rational Will, which wills nothing else but itself alone.

 Hegel says that Spirit is the self-knowing actual Idea; for him the Notion is the in-and-for-itself determined and determining absolute universal activity. Yet, Hegel does not take into consideration that Thinking is only an ideal immanent moment of the Absolute but not the totality of the Absolute itself; it is only a means of the absolute material mover. He fails to define it as a notion of the Will for it is material rational Will that is the life-giving material soul of everything in the World - things, plants, living beings and people. It is the activity of volitional matter that Hegel calls a Notion; it is the logical expression of the absolutely actual material Volition - the absolute actual material mover. 

 The Absolute is not only self-conscious, as Hegel claims; it is first and foremost self-volitional. This volitional nature is the most excellent, the most truthful and the most powerful starting point for willing of the Absolute. The Will has the urge to cognise its ideal - i.e. rational, - moment. Through this idealisation of its complete material reality, the Will becomes Spiritual Will. Thus, the Will is in total possession of its rational faculty; the volitional brain has the products of its rational faculty - Theoretical Reason and Practical Reason, - as moments of its Spiritual Will.

In fact, Hegel's intellectualistic philosophy is a perfectly pure presentation of Spiritual Will. It is a philosophy of Spiritual Will; it certainly deals with the spiritual form of Will. It is the point of view of intellectualistic philosophy that Spirit is absolutely higher and nobler than Will; according to Hegel Spirit is the highest determination of the Absolute. However, it is Will - not Intellect, - that acts and manifests itself in the world and is the cause of all things existing and happening in the World. Willing to know how to will, the Will has the urge to cognise itself, to grasp itself in its universality, to become its other - Spiritual Will. In its universality Will is only a Thought, which lacks reality. Will needs its spiritual form but the latter is not Will's ultimate end. The task of Intellect - the product of volitional brain, - is to raise Will to its universal form as Spiritual Will. Intellect is just an ability of volitional Brain and cannot exist and function without it. Its task is to elevate Will to its intellectual form as Spiritual Will. The latter is the Will as actually rational, as rational for-itself. The Will has the urge to return to its unity, to unite Natural Will (which is only itself, only potentially rational) and Spiritual Will and, in so doing, to become actual Rational Will. Accepting the orders of Intellect, the Will accepts only its own orders for its intellectual form  - its Spiritual Will, - is a moment of Will itself. The latter is certainly a willing itself Will. The Absolute Rational Will is passionate about its own acts for it is the source of all acts in the Universe.

Carrying out into practice his conation to conquer the World, to get it into possession and make it obey to him, Man's Will strives to cognise the World in its ideal form; it idealises the material reality of the World; the self-knowing Will attains to its Spiritual form. The Absolute Will spiritualises itself so that through human cognition it turns the material, corporal world into its immaterial, ideal laws of Nature and discover them for himself. Thus, being the performer of the Divine Will, Man comes into possession of the things as well as the universal laws of Nature and subordinates them to himself. Cognising itself, the universal Will comes to its very own universality and, thus, doubles itself in such a way that it becomes universal for the universal, i.e. pure Spiritual Will. The latter is a moment of the process of self-freeing of the Will for in its other - in Spiritual Will, - the Will is in the middle of its very own process of self-organising as in-and-for-itself Absolute Rational WIll. The Will is completely free since in its own other, in its spiritual form, it is in itself; it is busy with its ends and goals. It thinks about the means to attain to their realisation.

Hegel's philosophy of Absolute Spirit is the greatest presentation of Spiritual Will the World has ever had. Yet, the biggest insufficiency of Hegel's philosophy is that despite his requirement the history of philosophy to be an organically progressing whole, Hegel's history of philosophy is one-sided. Being a rational philosopher, Hegel failed to examine the development of voluntaristic philosophy as well as materialism impartially. He is interested first and foremost in the Spirit; he examines the Absolute Spirit, the development of cognition, in which the material is thrown away. Thus, the soul is examined as only conscious and cognising. The soul is not examined in the light of the facts of the universal realistic consciousness of the self-volitional body and its self-volitional brain; the soul is a moment of the self-volitional body. However, Hegel does not say so. In his philosophy the true, the spiritual, takes the place of the absolute volitional matter, the Concept takes the place of Volition for Hegel treats the Volition as a Concept.

Hegel failed to attain to the higher viewpoint that the Will mediates itself with itself so that through Thinking to free itself from its natural willing, to spiritualise itself and become Spiritual Will. The Reason, the Spirit - as revealed by intellectualistic philosophy, - is only a moment of the self-mastering Will; its role is to create what Hegel calls "a treasure of rational cognition." But Spirit - Spiritual Will, - is not the ultimate apex of development of the Absolute in voluntaristic philosophy; in the latter the Will has the urge to make a good use of this treasure and apply it totally in its practical life. The practical is an utter manifestation of the Absolute actual-rational principle "Will yourself." It is infinitely higher and more important than the theoretical and contains the latter in itself as sublated; the latest voluntaristic philosophy contains intellectualistic philosophy in itself as its own moment. The end of Will is to cognise its own absolute Law for it wills to develop the commonwealth of Law and Freedom in its political reality. Man's supreme end is to cognise the truth of the World Will - his own Will, - in order to know how and what to will, to be able to make the best choice concerning his own Good in a state in which he practises willingly and vigorously the rule of law.

Being a self-willing being, now Man has become a self-conscious one as well. Yet, there is no point in knowing what the Absolute wills, if this knowledge is not introduced in life and carried out into practice. The task of Spiritual Will is to help us to will the Absolute Will and realise it. As Hegel claims in the Preface of his Phenomenology of Mind: "The result is the same as the beginning solely because the beginning is purpose." True, for it is the result of the process of development of Will, which has its end as a purpose of its Volition and is the living process of realisation as well as organisation of its Volitions. Now the natural human Being becomes a self-willing thinking itself subject, a person. Not only is the person's life based on the passions and appetites of Natural WIll but it is also profoundly founded on performing the spiritually determined acts of the Absolute Will for it is the latter that is the Performer of the willing and the acting in us. The Will consists in possessing itself, using itself for itself; this is its nature. We have no other task but to perform its Will. Man knows utterly well the Absolute as totally willing itself; he is aware of its power, acknowledges its necessity and wills its Absolute Rational Will.

Thus, so far we have shown that there is pure self-possession in the plant world; feeling is a kind of volitional knowledge in the animal world. In Man it also adds the volitional power of brain - the power of acquiring universal intellectual knowledge; Will mediates itself with itself, it becomes passive intellectual knowledge, passive Spiritual Will, which only as connected with the Volitional corporeal strong desires, affections and restless appetencies can become active. Every living being possesses Natural Will as its first Will, its prima Voluntas; the possessor does not have it from itself or through itself. But only Man - due to his Spiritual Will, which is an subordinated moment of his Practical Will and serves the latter, - attains to Freedom of Will. In so doing, the Will returns to itself, it becomes the totally in-and-for-itself Rational Will, the absolute source of action. Will wills to enter in possession of itself - this is its own Good, the purest end of Will. Man does what he wants, what he wills. Vita activa is the most important and the most powerful part of Will, not bios theoreticos or vita contemplativa. Man's life manifests itself in-and-through acts of Willing; all his life is based on Rational Willing. The Will wills to think itself alone for its utter end is to return to itself and, in so doing, to come in total self-possession and rule itself for itself, to become free Will. It is important for us to understand the development of the idea of Freedom not as development of logical categories but as development of the determinations of Right. It is Will and only Will that develops and impose its Right and its universal laws. Will is the criterion of everything for through its actions it manifests itself in everything.  

While Spiritual Will - the self-knowing Will, -is the truth of the acts of Will, the omnipotent Practical Will acts and performs the truth of its own activities in political life. Practical Will is the totaling principle of Will. It initiates each volitional movement; it determines itself as much as thinking Volition as it determines itself as a willing thought, which wills to cognise itself and cognises itself so as to come into possession of itself and rule itself. The activities of Will are completely practical volitional material activities; its end is rational Right. Therefore, the laws revealed by the Natural Sciences as well as the rule of Law in each political state are to be regarded as laws of the absolute legislator. Altogether they form the Absolute Rational Right.

The highest determination of the Absolute, Man, is now as much a self-willing being as he is a self-conscious one: he knows that he has the ends and the material of his volitional actions in himself; he knows that he is willing himself. While Natural Will includes all the corporeal desires, affections, and emotions, i.e. all the faculties of the soul that are not comprehended under man's mere store of knowledge, now due to his Spiritual Will he knows that he wills himself and, moreover, he knows how to will in-and -through himself, i.e. how to make a good use of his power of self-determination to decide on his acts. Both the mental faculty by which he deliberately chooses purposes and imperative volitions and decides to put them in service of his corporeal desires and the volitional faculty by which he actually satisfies them are acts of the Practical Will of his volitional brain. Thus, now the Absolute attains to its Absolute Rational Will.

 

 

3. The Absolute Rational Will: "Rule yourself"

 

We preserve Hegel's principle totally as a moment of the infinitely higher principle "Will yourself." When one reads and studies Hegel's philosophy, it is absolutely essential the reader's spirit to be congenial with Hegel's spirit and capable of understanding his utterly speculative philosophy; in fact, the most speculative one ever. The great merit of Hegel's philosophy is that he attained to the knowledge of the Absolute as Absolute Spirit. For him truth is the end of philosophy. His standpoint is that the concrete idea is the result of the strivings of spirit to become objective to itself, to know itself. (Hegel, Lectures on the history of philosophy, translated by E. S. Haldane and Frances H. Simson, volume 3, Medieval and modern philosophy, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London, 1995, page 546) As he claims, the "being-at-home-with-self, or coming-to-self of Mind may be described as its complete and highest end: it is this alone that it desires and nothing else. Everything that from eternity has happened in heaven and earth, the life of God and all the deeds of time simply are the struggles for Mind to know itself, to make itself objective to itself, to find itself, be for itself, and finally unite itself to itself." (Hegel, Lectures on the History of Philosophy, translated by E. S. Haldane, in three volumes, Volume 1, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London, 1995, page 23)

Hegel's admiration for the intellectual world discovered by Plato is second to nothing. Plato's achievement is so great that we cannot but wholeheartedly join Hegel and deservedly admire it. Hegel says: "Contrasted with merely external reality, it is rather the ideal that is the most real, and it was Plato who perceived that it was the only real, for he characterised the universal or thought as the true, in opposition to what is sensuous." (Hegel, Lectures on the History of Philosophy, translated by E. S. Haldane, in three volumes, Volume 2, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London, 1995, p. 50)  Yet only to the ideal can intellectualistic philosophy develop the science of philosophy in its sublime desire for truth. For there is no denying of the fact that the result is the same as the beginning - i.e. as the principle of rational philosophy - solely because the principle presupposes its end as its aim. The starting point of Hegel's philosophy is the result of the whole previous self-development of intellectualistic philosophy. Hegel united the principles of all the philosophies, which preceded his own one; he united them as aspects of the supreme principle "Cognise yourself" and reduced them to moments of the Absolute Spirit. As a matter of fact, Plato had no chance to reach to the inference - and neither could Hegel, - that the Volitional World, the absolute rational unity of matter and Volition, is the totally real, free and truly existing. Never were they aware of the fact that it is the Will that acts in the world and realises itself in it.

Bearing in mind the supreme importance of Thinking, Hegel prefers to deal with the ends and interests of Spirit; he gives the Will a subordinated role. He defines the Will as a special way of thinking which carries itself out into practice; Thought is the substance of Will. In § 23 of his Philosophy of Right Hegel says: “The will is the true, or rather truth itself, because its self-determination consists in a correspondence between what it is in its existence (i.e. what it is as objective to itself) and its concept; or in other words, the pure concept of the will has the intuition of itself for its goal and its reality.” For him Thought is the supreme ruler of the world. Rightly appreciating the fact of mental consciousness, Hegel says: "The ground principles of the premises that spirit is in the first instance intelligence, and that the phases, through which it passes in its development, namely from feeling, through imaginative thinking to thought, are the way by which it produces itself as will, which, in turn, as the practical spirit in general, is the most direct truth of intelligence." (Philosophy of Right, §4) Yet he is not aware of the fact that this is a description of the concrete way which the Will has to go through for it possesses the energy of the infinite free Volition to overcome its Natural Will, to develop the latter to its immanent spiritual form and come into possession of its own Spiritual Will.

It is beyond doubt that for Hegel the Will, the practical, essentially contains the theoretical. But Hegel omits to say that the practical is the totally real, the total material Volition for self-possession; in his practical relationship to nature Man refers to the objects of Nature as their Will. The theoretical is only the result of the cognising activity, from which the material, the sensible is taken. The thinking 'I' takes this volitional knowledge - or self-possession, - for granted; it does realise that it belongs to the latter, that it and this intrinsic volitional self-possession are essentially one and the same, that it is a manifestation of the urge of the Absolute to fully acquire itself in its Truth and get into spiritual possession of its volitional materiality, which is intrinsically rational. It is for this reason that Hegel loves repeating time and time again in his works "As Adam said to Eve, “thou art flesh of my flesh and bone of my bone," so says the spirit, “This object is spirit of my spirit, and all alienation has disappeared.”" (Philosophy of Right, §4) The thinking I wills to attain and does attain to the spiritual moment of the object but being ideal its product is devoid of matter and the totality of the rational material volition of the Absolute. "I think that" is the highest apex of speculative intellectualistic philosophy. Spirit wills to usurp the rights of Rational Will. However, it fails and has to fail with absolute necessity for it is the Willing I that has the total power of Will and is the source of all acts of Willing. The Willing I is rational in-itself; it and it alone determines itself as actual Thinking and arrives at its spiritual form - Spiritual Will - as a result of the process of cognition; the philosophy of modern Rational Voluntarism fully vindicates the rational material actuality of the Willing I.

Intellectualistic philosophy has been claiming for millennia that reason rules the world since it is the soul of the world. True, the form of thinking is an absolute form. Due to it, the Will gets to know its own rational nature, i.e. its universality; it reveals itself to itself and knows itself. As a result, the Will is now able to determine itself in an universal way and becomes thinking or Spiritual Will.

Unquestionably, it is Spiritual Will that Hegel calls Absolute Spirit in his philosophy. Having cognised itself, now -every moment of Will's development is now, - it has to unite its spiritual form - the knowing itself Volition - with its actual volitional self-possession in order to become the totally practical knowing and possessing itself material rational Will of the person. Thanks to its self-cognition the Absolute becomes actual Rational Will; it becomes the willing itself Will and, in so doing, attains to possessing of what has already come into possession of itself, i.e. to its total self-possession. We say that being the universal hegemonic principle of the Universe, the Will cannot strive for anything else but its self-ruling. It has the urge to overcome its volitional self-possession and cognise itself. Rational Will wills to think itself, to grasp itself in its universality as World Spirit and, in so doing, to come into complete possession of its own Spirit.                

The philosophy of Absolute Rational Will sublates Hegel's philosophy and exalts the science of philosophy to a higher standpoint according to which Truth is a moment of Law, Spirit is a moment of Will. Truth is an indispensable moment of Good, Justice, Law and Freedom of Will. Will - the highest determination of the Absolute, - can only be free if it has cognised itself genuinely and definitely as much as it knows itself in its Truth. It is only due to Thinking that the Absolute attains to its total self-possession; Thinking is not the absolute end but only a necessary means for achieving of the truly highest end - the self-possessing, self-knowing and self-ruling material Rational Will. The Absolute wills this and nothing else but this. The goal of the Absolute is not to reconcile the subjective Spirit with the objective Spirit as Hegel claims but to come into possession of itself. Through Man the Absolute comes into its total self-possession of its own World. Politovolia - the highest manifestation the Absolute Rational Will in action as political Will - is the highest act of this coming into self-possession. 

What is Will in the world of living beings? As a manifestation of the Absolute actual Will, it is completely rational in-and-for-itself. It is infinitely more important than Thinking Spirit and contains Reason as sublated and one of its moments; it is the Absolute volitional matter. My life consists of acts of my Rational Will - a pure manifestation of the Absolute Rational Will. Amazingly enough, in everything we do, we are taught by the still omnipotent intellectualistic philosophers to see only acts of Thinking Reason, while at the same time being a totally practical being, in everything I do, I see only acts of Will. All the time I am busy, desperately willing to act; my whole life is a continuous and irreversible sequence of manifestations of my acts of Will. I experience my urges, inclinations, drives, desires; I feel pleasure, relief, disgust, etc. I am the recipient of my feelings and emotions. Being the total and unconditional realisation of the principle of willing individuation, being a willing individual, in the unity of volitional self-possession and Spiritual Will the 'I' powerfully wills itself alone.

In the reality of its absolute law God comes to total possession of its Volition in the world created by it and is the having itself having of its total material actuality - the Absolute Rational Will. The Will attains to its Law, to the complete totality of its Freedom - the highest manifestation of its self-possession. While Natural Will is the life-creating soul of all natural objects only, the free Rational Will is the organiser of the complete political reality of Mankind and continiously develops the universal determinations of Right ruling the World. We set ourselves goals and contemplate upon what means we have to use in order to achieve them. All kinds of acting are caused by desires. Will is the absolutely actual while Intellect is contemplative and therefore passive. Man, the highest form of volitional individualism, develops his Spiritual Will; the latter serves him to make choices that promote survival, welfare, freedom and happiness. This volitional nature is the most dignified, the most truthful and the most powerful starting point for the completely real world of Political Will. The principle of the world of Political Will - of Politovolia, - is the infinite free Volition.

We have seen that the Will mediates itself with itself in order to become the Absolute Rational Will. As Natural Will it manifests itself in life; yet, it is infinitely more than just the human ability of Willing. Actually, the Will is identical with the Absolute Rational Volition, Man being the highest form of material Volition. The latter shapes a real man’s desires. Willing to come into its total self-possession, it has the urge to cognise itself in its Truth as Spiritual Will. But while our knowledge of Truth is limited, (Hegel's Absolute Truth is the ideal, which can be achieved by beings better equipped with sensual and mental powers than we are; at the same time we aim at it and will always aim at it), our Rational Will is infinite for it is the consummate unity of the Rational Will in-itself and the thinking Rational Will for itself. As the Rational Will in-and-for-itself, it is the unconditional possessor of the complete material rationality of the Absolute Volition. It has the immanent infinite power of the latter to become self-ruling; this is the highest determination of the Absolute Rational Will. The history of mankind is nothing else but the history of Will's great acts. 

There is no doubt: the best critique of modern academic philosophy is the complete disillusion of people of practice with philosophy. It has failed to exert any influence on practical life for decades; no one expects the existing state of affairs to change. Without question, the era of New Practice-oriented Philosophy - called Politovolia - has come. The task of the Philosophy of Absolute Rational Will is to free philosophy of its pure speculative, intellectualistic form, to make it a realistic science once again and integrate it with all other practically verifiable sciences of Mankind. Not only does it have to exalt the status of the Science of Philosophy and base it on the great achievements of modern Natural Sciences but it also has to become utterly practical and search for the answers of the questions of our times. The good news for all supporters of Modern Rational Voluntarism is that no other philosophy is better predestined to provide these answers. Soon.

Join the school, ladies and gentlemen!

 

 

 

NOTES

3. Hegel, Lectures on the History of Philosophy, translated by E. S. Haldane, in three volumes, Volume 1, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London, 1995, p. 4

 

 

 

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